Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Sign in | Create Account

Transportation, the Built Environment and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Developing Cities

04/06/2010 4:00 PM 3"270
Chris Zegras, Ford Career Development Assistant Professor of Transportation and Urban Planning, MIT

Description: It seems that income and travel are inextricably linked. As communities gain wealth and prosperity, their travel footprint increases. While this relationship affords benefits to those in developed nations, it is not scalable. Global population is projected to increase by nearly 2 billion people by 2030. If this newly added population drove just 3,000 kilometers a year, they would emit more tonnes of C02 annually, more than all the countries of Latin America emit today. "The world simply cannot afford to add another Latin America", says Chris Zegras.

Zegras observes that fundamentally, people do not desire travel . they wish to have accessibility. Travel is a derived demand, prompted by our activities. If we could make better use of telecommunications, or, if our cities were more compact, perhaps we would find less need for vehicle trips. This is not a new concept for Americans. Nearly 100 years ago, planners envisioned "garden cities" where urban space could be better designed to promote community and neighborhood.

Zegras and his students are modeling the trajectory of travel and growth in the developing world" primarily Asia and South America. In Santiago, Chile there has been a large growth of the middle class, accompanied, not surprisingly by an increase in automobile ownership. However, vehicle ownership and rising income are only part of the explanation. The research has noted that distance to the Central Business District, and proximity to Santiago's Metro system are also important factors. Neither urban density nor income entirely explains the picture of travel behavior.

In Jinan, China the research team has compared travel in four distinctly different types of neighborhoods, and conducted a survey with 9 areas and 300 households per district. Counter intuitively, the data shows vehicle trips are more prevalent in higher density. These are new style developments consisting of very tall residential superblocks. In fact, looking at total energy consumption, the superblocks use more mega joules of energy than households in more traditional or older Chinese neighborhoods.

At the end of the day, Zegras notes that there is a complex, and perhaps reflexive mechanism between the built environment and travel. The built environment may simply not provide enough accessibility to get us to a different standard, and behaviorally, people may cling to their implicit "travel time budgets". If they are able to reduce their daily travel on the one hand, might they then accumulate the savings, so to speak, and take one longer, leisure trip at month"end on an airplane? Measuring the carbon footprint of transportation within the built environment is difficult and there is "leakage". If we save in one area, we might spend in another.

About the Speaker(s): Chris Zegras teaches graduate"level courses in urban transportation planning, statistics, and land use"transportation planning in the Department of Urban Studies at MIT, where he has also co"taught urban design and planning studios and Practica in Beijing, Santiago de Chile, and Mexico City. He currently serves as the MIT Lead for the MIT"Portugal Program Transportation Systems Focus Area. He is also a member of the Campus Energy Task Force of the MIT Energy Initiative.

Zegras previously worked as a Research Associate at MIT's Laboratory for Energy & the Environment. He also spent 6 years with the International Institute for Energy Conservation (IIEC) in Washington, DC and Santiago de Chile. He has consulted widely on transportation, land development, environment, and finance, including for the International Energy Agency, the Government of Peru, the World Bank, the U.S., Canadian, and German overseas development agencies, and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development.

Zegras holds a BA in Economics and Spanish from Tufts University, and the Master in City Planning, the Master of Science in Transportation, and the Ph.D. in Urban and Regional Planning from MIT

Host(s): School of Engineering, Transportation@MIT

Comments (0)

It looks like no one has posted a comment yet. You can be the first!

You need to log in, in order to post comments. If you don’t have an account yet, sign up now!

MIT World — special events and lectures

MIT World — special events and lectures

Category: Events | Updated almost 3 years ago

Created
December 16, 2011 15:00
Category
Tags
License
All Rights Reserved (What is this?)
Additional Files


Viewed
2692 times

More from MIT World — special events and lectures

Turing Award Winners Panel Discussion

Turing Award Winners Panel Discussion

Added almost 3 years ago | 00:59:19 | 2155 views

Learning to See in the Dark: The Roots of Ethical Resistance

Learning to See in the Dark: The Ro...

Added almost 3 years ago | 01:10:00 | 6030 views

From Ridiculous to Brilliant: Why We Play at Work

From Ridiculous to Brilliant: Why W...

Added almost 3 years ago | 00:46:41 | 2054 views

Interdisciplinary Research at MIT: Making Uncommon Connections

Interdisciplinary Research at MIT: ...

Added almost 3 years ago | 01:49:00 | 2337 views

Globalization and Higher Education:  Competition and Cooperation , iCampus closing remarks

Globalization and Higher Education:...

Added almost 3 years ago | 01:13:00 | 1705 views

Bioengineering at MIT: Building Bridges Between the Sciences, Engineering and Health Care  (Part Two)

Bioengineering at MIT: Building Bri...

Added almost 3 years ago | 01:26:00 | 2166 views